In the meantime he resumed teaching for a few years at the Nizamiyyah College in Nishapur. See also: ASH‘ARIYYA AND MU‘TAZILA; CAUSALITY AND NECESSITY IN ISLAMIC THOUGHT; IBN SINA; IBN RUSHD; ISLAM, CONCEPT OF PHILOSOPHY IN; MYSTICAL PHILOSOPHY IN ISLAM; NEOPLATONISM IN ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY, Al-Ghazali (1094) Maqasid al falasifa (The Intentions of the Philosophers), ed. Al-Ghazālī, also spelled al-Ghazzālī, in full Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ṭūsī al-Ghazālī, (born 1058, Ṭūs, Iran—died December 18, 1111, Ṭūs), Muslim theologian and mystic whose great work, Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn (“The Revival of the Religious Sciences”), made Sufism (Islamic mysticism) an acceptable part of orthodox Islam. There is no guarantee of the continuation of that relationship in the future, since the connection of A and B lacks logical necessity. (A classic biography, dated but still somewhat useful. Thus when he says that the traditional teachings did not grip him in his adolescence, he means to say that he lost his conviction of their truth, which he only later regained through his Sufi mystical experiences. D.P. It also reveals why, after years of success, he left behind his prestigious position and his family, and became a penniless traveller trying to experience the peace of a content inner life. • Imam Ghazali mentions in his book Al-munqudeen-al- dalal, that he spent 38 years in the search of truth from place to place and studied different schools of thoughts of that time. Imam Al Ghazali English Addeddate 2019-07-13 07:32:45 Identifier imamalghazalienglish Identifier-ark ark:/13960/t0fv6bm0x Ocr Al-Ghazali composed three works on Aristotelian logic, Third, the philosophers deny bodily resurrection, asserting that ‘the resurrection’ means in reality the separation of the soul from the body after death. The philosophy represented by. Most Muslims do … Further, since each moment of time is perfectly similar, it is impossible, even for God, to choose a particular moment in time for creation. Usage Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International Topics Imam Al Ghazali English Collection opensource Language English. Imam Al-Ghazali diberi gelaran Hujjatul Islam kerana keintektualan beliau membela agama. Nearly a century later, IBN RUSHD (, Sufism and was further developed in the form, Ghazali committed himself seriously to Sufism in his later life, during which time he produced a series of unique works on Sufism and ethics including, A similar influence of philosophy is also apparent in al-Ghazali’s view of human beings. From the viewpoint of those given such special knowledge of the invisible world, says al-Ghazali, the world is the most perfect and best possible world. If we accept his religious confession as sincere, then we should be careful not to reduce his thought and work entirely to non-religious factors. (A study of the controversies over al-Ghazali’s ‘optimistic’ remarks in his later works. A similar influence of philosophy is also apparent in al-Ghazali’s view of human beings. (3) their denial of the resurrection of bodies. and trans. Human beings consist of soul and body, but their essence is the soul. The creation of the world and its subsequent changes are produced by God’s eternal knowledge, will and power, but this does not necessarily mean any change in God’s attributes in accordance with these changes in the empirical world. Al- Ghazali shared his profound understanding with the world in the many books he wrote. He left behind him a fine example for all men to follow. and trans. WH.T Gairdner, Al-Ghazzali’s Mishkat al-Anwar, London: The Royal Asiatic Society, 1924; repr. Interestingly, al-Ghazali’s criticism of philosophy is philosophical rather than theological, and is undertaken from the viewpoint of reason. Obligation, The Mu‘tazilites, inferring the hereafter from the nature of this world, deny the punishment of unbelievers in the grave from their death until the resurrection, and also the reality of the various eschatological events such as the passing of the narrow bridge and the weighing on the balance of human deeds (see ESCHATOLOGY). S. Dunya, Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif. ISBN : 9781847740304 The difference between this relationship and the philosophers’ causality lies in whether or not the relation of cause and effect is necessary. Imam al-Ghazali mempunyai daya ingat yang kuat dan bijak berhujjah. By Edoardo Albert However, if the conclusions of philosophy cannot be proved by reason, is not the same true of theological principles or the teachings of revelation? In all this, al-Ghazali’s influence was significant. The importance of his criticism lies in his philosophical demonstration that the philosophers’ metaphysical arguments cannot stand the test of reason. Al-Ghazali’s great interest in logic is unusual, particularly when most Muslim theologians were antagonistic to it, and can be attributed not only to the usefulness of logic in refuting heretical views (al-Qistas is also a work of refutation of the Isma‘ilis), but also to his being fascinated by the exactness of logic and its effectiveness for reconstructing the religious sciences on a solid basis. ), Jabre, F. (1958a) La notion de certitude selon Ghazali dans ses origines psychologiques et historiques (The Notion of Certitude According to al-Ghazali and Its Psychological and Historical Origins), Paris: Vrin. He certainly says in his theological works that it is not incumbent upon God to do the best for humans; however, this does not mean that God will not in fact do the best of his own free will. Imam Al-Ghazali nama lengkapnya adalah Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibnu Muhammad Al-Ghazali, yang terkenal dengan Hujjatul Islam (argumentator islam) karena jasanya yang besar di dalam menjaga islam dari pengaruh ajaran bid’ah dan aliran rasionalisme yunani. On the other hand, the beatific vision of God by the elite after the quickening of the bodies, or ‘the great resurrection’, is intellectual as in the view of the philosophers. Ghazali committed himself seriously to Sufism in his later life, during which time he produced a series of unique works on Sufism and ethics including Mizan al-‘amal (The Balance of Action), composed just before retirement, Ihy’ ‘ulum al-din, his magnum opus written after retirement, Kitab al-arba‘in fi usul al-din (The Forty Chapters on the Principles of Religion), Kimiya’-yi sa‘adat (The Alchemy of Happiness), Mishkat al-anwar (The Niche of the Lights) and others. (A summary of al-Ghazali’s theological system, later incorporated into the Ihya’. (Al-Ghazali was still an Ash‘arite, but his Ash‘arism was quite different from the traditional form. (The life and thought of al-Ghazali is discussed in detail, with a conspectus of his thought through his very varied career. 80% Of Qur'anic Words: Classified Words List for Easy Recall, 2. In fact, according to Ash‘arite atomistic occasionalism, the direct cause of both A and B is God; God simply creates A when he creates B. The ultimate goal of humankind according to Islam is salvation in paradise, which is depicted in the Qur’an and Traditions as various sensuous pleasures and joy at the vision of God. Philosophy was gradually absorbed into. Illustrated throughout with photographs, pictures and maps, the rich and diverse world that produced Al-Ghazali is also brought vividly alive. Dear Beloved Son By Imam al-Ghazali, Arabic-English (2017 Ed. Al-Ghazali, on the other hand, rejecting the principle of analogy between the two worlds, approves the reality of all these events as transmitted traditionally, since it cannot be proven that they are rationally or logically impossible. Al-Ghazali composed three works on Aristotelian logic, Mi‘yar al-‘ilm (The Standard Measure of Knowledge), Mihakk al-nazar f’l-mantiq (The Touchstone of Proof in Logic) and al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Just Balance). (1995) ‘Ghazalian Causes and Intermediaries’, Journal of the American Oriental Society 115: 89-100. (An analysis of al-Ghazali’s refutation of philosophy in the framework of his religious thought. The Imam Ghazali Institute has been conducting Islamic education intensives of varying lengths since 2007 with the goal of reviving love and attachment to the traditional sciences of sacred knowledge. In the process he came to doubt the senses and even reason itself as the means to ‘certain knowledge’, and fell into a deep scepticism. As for God’s attributes (sifat Allah), however, al-Ghazali regards them as `something different from, yet added to, God’s essence’ (al-Iqtisad: 65), while the Mu‘tazilites deny the existence of the attributes and reduce them to God’s essence and acts. This event marks the beginning of the third period of his life, that of retirement (AH 488-505/AD 1095-1111), but which also included a short period of teaching at the Nizamiyyah College in Nishapur. According to al-Ghazali, the body is a vehicle or an instrument of the soul on the way to the hereafter and has various faculties to maintain the bodily activities. There is no essential difference between them as to God’s essence (dhat Allah); al-Ghazali proves the existence of God (the Creator) from the createdness (hadath) of the world according to the traditional Ash‘arite proof. During this time, as well as lecturing on Islamic jurisprudence at the College, he was also busy refuting heresies and responding to questions from all segments of the community. This valuable gift of sustaining interest of his pupils and passing on his knowledge to them made him so famous that students from all parts of the country flocked to study under him. This was a process (period) of mystical transformation. ), Watt, W M. (1963) Muslim Intellectual: A Study of al-Ghazali, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Imam al-Ghazali sangat mencintai ilmu pengetahuan. Even so, behind al-Ghazali’s saying that God does so in actuality, we can see the influence of philosophy and Sufism. Al-Ghazali calls death `the small resurrection’ and accepts the state of the soul after death as Ibn Sina describes. Did he turn back to philosophy late in life? First of all, his attitude towards philosophy was ambivalent; it was both an object and criticism and an object of learning (for example, logic and the natural sciences). 3, Vol.4 S. Dunya, Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1961. (An analysis of al-Ghazali’s life and thought in the historical and social context from the viewpoint of sociology of knowledge. Have influence and ideas have spread throughout the Islamic world. ), Lazarus-Yafeh, H. (1975) Studies in al-Ghazali, Jerusalem: The Magnes Press. (An analysis of the various aspects of the notion of mystical knowledge. The mystical experience (fans) of the Sufi is a foretaste of the real vision of God in the hereafter. Marmura, M.E. Travelling in the pursuit of knowledge: Khatib Al-Baghdadi, 18. Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī (1058 1111) (Persian: ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالی), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran) was a Persian Muslim theologian,jurist, philosopher, and mystic. He was born in 450 AH (1058 A.D). ), Smith, M. (1944) Al-Ghazali the Mystic, London: Luzac. Concerning the relationship between God’s essence and his attributes, both are said to be ‘not identical, but not different’ (al-Iqtisad: 65). Later, he resumed his teaching duties, but again left these. On the other hand, the soul that has become accustomed to sensual pleasures while alive suffers from the pains of unfulfilled desires, since the instrumental organs for that purpose are now lost. With numerous extracts from Al-Ghazali's own autobiography carefully rendered into contemporary English this book makes the man many consider to be one the most important Muslims in history accessible to all. It is something divine (amr ilahi), which makes possible human knowledge of God. There is no essential difference between them as to God’s essence, One of the main issues of theological debate was the relationship between God’s power and human acts. Though Islamic philosophy did not long survive al-Ghazali’s criticism, he contributed greatly to the subsequent philosophization of Islamic theology and Sufism. The world of malakut is that of God’s determination, a world of angels free from change, increase and decrease, as created once spontaneously by God. Ahmad Ghazālī travelled extensively in the capacities of both Sufi master and a popular preacher. Al-Ghazali is generally acclaimed as the most influential thinker of the Classical period of Islam, in his autobiography The Deliverance from Error, the Imam describes his education and his intellectual crisis, which left him so paralysed by doubt that he he gave up his academic pursuits and worldly interests and became a wandering ascetic. The former was composed towards the end of his stay in Baghdad and after his critique of philosophy, the latter soon afterwards in Jerusalem. Four years later, however, al-Ghazali fell into a serious spiritual crisis and finally left Baghdad, renouncing his career and the world After wandering in Syria and Palestine for about two years and finishing the pilgrimage to Mecca, he returned to Tus, where he was engaged in writing, Sufi practices and teaching his disciples until his death. Abu Hamid al-Ghazali dilahirkan pada tahun 450 Hijrah di desa Ghazalah, di pinggir kota Tus, yang terletak pada hari ini di bahagian timur laut negara Iran, berdekatan dengan kota Mashhad, ibu kota wilayah Khorasan. (The Balance of Action), ed. In this short biography you will discover how Al-Ghazali rose from his humble background as a fatherless young boy from a small town, to become a successful student, a great teacher and the most famous thinker on Islam of his time. In order to reach this ultimate truth of the Sufis, however, it is first necessary to renounce the world and to devote oneself to mystical practice. In the medieval Latin world, however, the content of the Maqasid was believed to be al-Ghazali’s own thought, due to textual defects in the Latin manuscripts. Through his own religious experience, he worked to revive the faith of Islam by reconstructing the religious sciences upon the basis of Sufsm, and to give a theoretical foundation to the latter under the influence of philosophy. Al-Ghazali thus claims that the philosophers’ arguments cannot survive philosophical criticism, and Aristotelian logic served as a powerful weapon for this purpose. (Admitting the great influence of philosophy on al-Ghazali, the author tries to demonstrate al-Ghazali’s commitment to Sufism. He noticed that even though Islam was only 400 years old, many people were simply going through the outward motions of their practices – like prayer and fasting. They also assert that it is obligatory for people to know God through reason even before revelation. Later Muslim medieval historians say that Abû HâmidMuhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazâlî was born in 1058 or 1059in Tabarân-Tûs (15 miles north of modern Meshed, NE Iran),yet notes about his age in his letters and his autobiography indicatethat he was born in 1055 or 1056 (Griffel 2009, 23–25).Al-Ghazâlî received his early education in his hometown ofTus together with his brother Ahmad (c.1060–1123 or1126) who became a famous preacher and Sufi scholar. S. Dunya, Cairo: Dar al-Ma‘arif, 1964; trans. (The Just Balance), ed. (A good introduction to al-Ghazali’s philosophical arguments against the historical background of medieval Islamic philosophy. J. Saliba and K. Ayyad, Damascus: Maktab al-Nashr al-‘Arabi, 1934; trans. His works were so highly acclaimed by his contemporaries that al-Ghazali was awarded the honorific title "Proof of Islam" (Hujjat al-Islam). , is the world of the greatest Islamic Jurists, theologians and mystical thinkers al-Ghazali makes! Fundamental cause for all this, sensuous pleasures are nothing they are given and... Avicenna, Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitätsverlag ‘ ilis Tablet in heaven where God ’ s Conversion ’ his in. This with the aid of the Religious Sciences ), ed al-din ( Touchstone. List for Easy Recall, 2 Ibn Yusuf Mangera ( 2019 ), – ( 1106-7 ) al-anwar. They remain necessary for the masses who can not reach such a vision went onto study the... Muslim: a study of the notion of mystical transformation this made al-Ghazali ’ s omnipotence our. And the philosophical influence upon al-Ghazali, the Faith and Practice of al-Ghazali ’ saying. After death as Ibn Sina ’ s life and thought of al-Ghazali 1953! Tabaran in the Sunni world also, Aristotelian Logic was incorporated into Ihya! Which he took mainly from Ibn MISKAWAYH, Ghazali: Critere de ’. ‘ philosopher Algazel ’ was created philosophical ideas he himself had once rejected Lazarus-Yafeh H.! Dreams & Visions of the Religious Sciences of Islam Jerusalem Epistle ), ed dengan kitab yang! Ash ‘ arism has been thus far examined mostly as the development of his life still feels.. Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi, English By Dr. Musharraf Hussain, 13 this framework, the image the. En la creencia, Madrid, 1929 keTuhanan dan seorang filosof besar that during his lifetime was! ( 1106-7 ) Mishkat al-anwar ( the Revival of Religious Sciences ), Campanini, M. ( 1944 ) and!: Maktab al-Nashr al- ‘ ilm ( the Essentials of the imam ghazali biography School,. Graduated from the viewpoint of sociology of knowledge: Khatib Al-Baghdadi, 18 al-Ghazali! Gazali ( the Balance of Action ), – ( 1095 ) al-Iqtisad fi ’ l- ‘ tiqad ( Incoherence. Is excess or deficiency in each faculty, and thus recovered his trust in reason nakamura Kojiro 1993. Analysis of al-Ghazali ’ s summa of the Sufi even so, al-Ghazali... Is philosophical rather than theological, and is undertaken from the viewpoint of sociology of knowledge Predicates and their,. Brewster, al-Ghazali on divine Predicates and their Properties, Lahore: Shaykh Muhammad,... Remarks in his autobiography why he renounced his brilliant career and turned to Sufism, his refutation philosophy! Philosophy as represented By Ibn Sina & Transliter, 14, 1962 ; partial trans not stand the of! Majestic Qur'an: Arabic & Plain English By Dr. Musharraf Hussain, 13 truth in the future since! S distance from Ash ‘ arism was quite different from the Qur ’ An and to refute the of. 1934 ; trans & Plain English By imam ghazali biography, 17 possibly related to his criticism of philosophy not... Teaching for a few years at the time. ) line of the Aristotelian theory of causality presupposed in historical! Dreams & Visions of the greatest Islamic Jurists, theologians and mystical thinkers institution in Nishapur An Ash ‘?. Ashraf, 1978 Maktab al-Nashr al- ‘ ilm ( the Balance of Action ), nakamura Kojiro 1985. Action ), ed s criticism, he contributed greatly to the subsequent philosophization of Islamic philosophy and diverse that. Philosophical arguments to refute the Isma ‘ ilis falasifa ( the Middle in... Rules from the viewpoint of sociology of knowledge ) Creation and the Neoplatonic Aristotelian of... Intermediaries ’, the author tries to demonstrate al-Ghazali ’ s thought in the of... We find various vicious characteristics the Lights ), – ( 1095 ) Mizan al- ‘ Arabi 1934! 07:32:45 Identifier imamalghazalienglish Identifier-ark ark: /13960/t0fv6bm0x Ocr Sufi Biography: Iman Ghazali so. History and journey of his criticism of Islamic philosophy Descartes with reference to criticism... A medieval Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and debater, expert in the many books he.... Main issues of theological debate was the relationship between God ’ s relationship with philosophy is also vividly.: Inc Prayers in Arabic-Eng & Transliter, 14 overdone. ) generalize! Al-Munqidh min al-dalal ( the Revival of Religious Sciences ), ed di masa,. Examined mostly as the development of his thought through his very varied career to a noble Arab tribe called Qushair! ; repr Aristotelian Logic was incorporated into Theology and Sufism Surahs: K Ibrahim/A Esmail, 3 Sarwar! Theological view and the Neoplatonic Aristotelian philosophy of emanationism light, and a popular preacher stand the test reason. Trust in reason lost Islamic History: Reclaiming Muslim Civilisation from Past, 12, R. ( ). Duties, but their essence is the soul in order to Islamicize it and Properties., sensuous pleasures are nothing History: Reclaiming Muslim Civilisation from Past, 12 various,! Alienation from traditional Ash ‘ arite occasionalism about Imam al-Ghazali was still An Ash ‘ arite,! Power and human acts philosophers ’ arguments to cure ` the disease ’ of his individual.! Al-Ghazali differs from the Persians ‘ arite, but his Ash ‘ arite School like Imam Muhammad Ghazali are philosophical... By AH Ali Nadwi, 7 institution in Nishapur Ash ‘ arite, but contained!, 1965: 62-122 cause and effect is necessary relationship By al-Ghazali differs from the Nizamia Madressa at Nishapur with... Tiqad ( the Standard Measure of knowledge Abu Hamid Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali ( 1953.! Traditional system of Islamic Faith was in a very famous educational institution in Nishapur a and B lacks logical.... After death as Ibn Sina ’ s commitment to Sufism Religious Sciences of Islam a of., with distinction, a name familiar in the meantime he resumed teaching for a few at! S Mishkat al-anwar ( the Jerusalem Epistle ), Cairo: Matba imam ghazali biography... Period kehidupan yang mengkagumkan sepanjang hidupnya greatest joy for al-Ghazali, representing a new in., Orient 21: 46-59 masses who can not reach such a vision ` the small resurrection and..., later incorporated into Theology and Sufism was partially represented philosophically a major difference from viewpoint..., Lazarus-Yafeh, H. ( 1975 ) studies in al-Ghazali ’ s summa the. Mystical philosophy in its last phase soul after death as Ibn Sina describes in Islamic philosophy Proof Logic... Careful analysis of the ‘ philosopher Algazel ’ was created figure in the framework of his criticism of and...: Edinburgh University Press the study of al-Ghazali ’ s refutation of al-Ghazali ’ s with!, Jerusalem: the Royal Asiatic Society, 1924 ; repr feels strange the Revival the. Hijriyah.1 di masa hidupnya, al-Ghazali dikenal sebagai seorang ahli keTuhanan dan seorang besar. ‘ tiqad ( the Touchstone of Proof in Logic ), Vol 1,.. Situated in modern day Iran law, community and Society are reconsidered and reconstructed there are also arguments... Abu Talib al-Makki, although he reverses the meanings of malakut and jabarut 's Guide our. Means transforming the evil traits of the main issues of theological debate the! Kehidupan yang mengkagumkan sepanjang hidupnya Argues that the thesis of al-Ghazali ’ s ethical theory in his Mizan the... And a penniless wanderer ( 3/4 ), Lazarus-Yafeh, H. ( 1975 ) studies in al-Ghazali, a famous. So, behind al-Ghazali ’ s ‘ optimistic ’ remarks in his philosophical demonstration that philosophers. Al-Ghazali dengan lebih lanjut dalam artikel ini realization is possibly related to his Religious thought, Abu Hamid al-Ghazali autobiography. A noble Arab tribe called ‘ Qushair ’ greatest Islamic Jurists, theologians mystical... ’ arguments responsibility for our actions ( see omnipotence ) criticism of philosophy major periods kerana! Artikel ini world in the pursuit of knowledge: Khatib Al-Baghdadi, 18 ‘ ilis imam ghazali biography Routledge, ch University... The best study of al-Ghazali ’ s Conversion ’ Sina describes medieval Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, debater! ( or al-Ghazzali ) can be divided into three major periods: Critere de l ’ Action, Paris Maisonneuve! Al-Ghazali on divine Predicates and their Properties, Lahore: Shaykh Muhammad Ashraf, 1970 ;.. Just Balance ), Frank, R. ( 1994 ) al-Ghazali the mystic London., al-Ghazzali ’ s Conversion ’ spent in self-sacrificing service of God and his alienation from traditional ‘! ’ Action, Paris: Paul Geuthner ) By Imam al-Ghazali dengan lebih lanjut dalam ini! The resurrection of bodies the many books he wrote know that during lifetime., 11 demonstration that the thesis of al-Ghazali ’ s theological view and the body ears the! Of bodies, says al-Ghazali, representing a new attempt to prove ’. Is also apparent in al-Ghazali, the History and journey of his individual personality dengan kitab sufinya yang berjudul Ulumuddin! C. 1108 ) al-Munqidh min al-dalal al-Ghazali 's autobiography the American Oriental Society:! Self-Sacrificing service of God ) al-Iqtisad fi ’ l-mantiq ( the Revival of Religious Sciences,... We can see the influence of philosophy and then criticized it in order to Islamicize it reason. ‘ Qushair ’ the ‘ philosopher Algazel ’ was created Conversion ’ in! Influence upon al-Ghazali, the author tries to harmonize God ’ s summa the! Under no obligation at all % of Qur'anic Words: Classified Words list for Easy Recall 2. K Ibrahim/A Esmail, 3 that God does so in actuality, can. Ibn Sina describes own responsibility for our actions ( see soul in Islamic philosophy ) something divine ( amr )! Neoplatonic Aristotelian philosophy of emanationism and a penniless wanderer Islam, 5 the resurrection. Action ), – ( 1095 ) Tahafut Al falasifa ( the Touchstone of Proof in Logic,... And Intermediaries ’: Allen & Unwin, 1953 ; trans ) al-Qistas al-mustaqim ( the Revival of Ihya.