examples of behavior in psychology

06/12/2020 Uncategorized

A boy sitting and studying suddenly gets up and takes a glass of water. Much of human behaviour is a result of learning. In psychology, behavior consists of an organism's external reactions to its environment. Life is not always full of all sorts of changes. While the increasing similarities may be attributed to factors in the environment such as social, political, and economic conditions of the society, increasing differences are by and large attributable to factors in the individual himself, e.g. Description: Too much of a Behavior It was probably because that ad used an advertising tactic based on psychological principles. Psychology . Now imagine a men's prison with its meal routines. People would not be able to live with each other. can be minimized if not totally eliminated. Examples of a very complex behaviour may be seen in complex decision-making activities, such as a judge who delivers a judgement considering a number of factors. On the other hand, there are instances of behaviour where such universality is not found, but a large number of people are found to behave similarly. Yet another difference is that in the first example the boy moves towards water. A young child walking with his mother and coming across an ice-cream parlor insists on his mother buying him an ice-cream. These factors gradually influence and shape the behaviour of people. 10 Preferring Blondes. While changes due to learning are mainly results of experience, there are also other forms of changes in behaviour which are not dependent on learning. In studying Psychology, there are 8 types of behavior that a Psych student must know, these are: Overt Behavior, Covert, Conscious, Unconscious, Rational Behavior, Irrational, Voluntary Behavior and its opposite: Involuntary Behavior. Every human being has physiological, psychological, personal and social purposes. In the latter example he could have avoided the disturbance either by moving away to a safer place or by sending his sister away or by spanking her. TOS4. Critical listening needs judging what has been said to make an opinion. Psychology. (2) Laws and principles which explain group differences and individual differences in behaviour. Examples of a very complex behaviour may be seen in complex decision-making activities, such as a judge who delivers a judgement considering a number of factors. Have you ever wondered, how did you learn to behave in a specific situation either to act good or bad? A type of behavior is way to group behaviors. Behaviour Varies in Complexity 3. What is important here is the fact that human behaviour shows stability, consistency, similarity, as well as uniqueness. This also includes suitable emotional responses. Examples of behavioral psychology tend to require some degree of control over the environment. These methods discover patterns of behavior and identify causes of psychological trauma, obsession, and behavioral problems. Read More. “He/she hates me!” Whether at home, at work or in any other situation, we have all believed that our … It is influenced by a variety of purposes. The Factors Influencing Behaviour are of Different Kinds 4. Let us go through the four different personality types. There are many examples of social behavior… Here the purpose is to avoid the noise and disturbance and the goal is to reach a place where this noise is not heard. Learning, therefore, has been a topic of major concern in psychology. For example, when we say that Ram is a pleasant person, Govind is an unpleasant person, Krishna is a sociable person and so on. Human behaviour is influenced by a number of factors and these factors vary from one person to another and even from one group of people to another group of people. Psychology is actually study with regards to the mind, taking place partly through the study of behavior. Sometimes those aspects of psychology which deal with the first set of laws are brought under the term General Psychology and the latter under Differential Psychology. Let's talk about how to apply behavioral psychology to your daily life. The challenge with most of us is, most of us only view the world through our lens, because we do have a personality type. Three advertising tactics that take advantage of social psychology concepts include: 1. Human behaviour is always purposeful and one’s actions are always directed towards some goal or the other. Fortunately, you can find only three main types of behaviors which people show once they interact with people. Parents often use a reward system when potty training a toddler. Some boys buy the sweetmeat and eat while another group of boys take a second look and remark, “This is dirty. This is what is called An Approach Behaviour or Positive Goal Directed Behaviour. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Interacting with people is usually difficult and confusing. On the other hand imagine the same boy sitting and studying. The science and treatment are based on observation, testing, and interview techniques. As the person grows from infancy through childhood to adulthood, behaviour is regularly and cumulatively influenced by these factors. Every individual believes as a total person and not in an unpredictable manner. The origins of behavioral psychology start with John B. Watson in 1913, who proposed that psychologists should focus on the observable behavior of individuals, rather than the invisible, inner workings of their minds (a theory that stemmed from Freud). Example: Exhibitionism or Bed-wetting, Description: Skilled with performance however has a stronger than distinctive autonomic system response, frequently it is anxieties and fears. Here the goal is to have a glass of water and the purpose is to quench his thirst. While behaviour of people changes, at the same time there is also certain stability in behaviour. (d) However, it often happens that when physiological changes are fast, the environment remains stable. In recent years a lot of knowledge has been gained about unconscious purposes and their role in behaviour, largely due to the efforts of Sigmund Freud. Some forms of human behaviour are influenced by a large number of factors while other forms of behaviour are influenced by a fewer factors. Here are some of the general types of prosocial behavior and specific examples of each: as identified in the social psychology volume “Handbook of Social Psychology”: Helping. The purpose remains the same while the goals can be different. But Skinner didn’t expect the bird to know that it needed to touch its beak to the spot. In spite of all these, behaviour always shows an order and a hierarchy of purposes. Behaviour Also Shows Stability: Characteristic # 9. Privacy Policy3. Behaviour is Integrated. Imagine a school situation where the lunch bell has just rung and all the boys come running out. Examples of this are eating, jogging, writing, dancing, walking, reading, studying, singing, talking, etc. Though it’s mostly thought of as an old wives’ tale, the idea that gentlemen prefer blondes has biological grounding. The same child, a few years later, in a similar situation behaves very differently though his liking for ice-cream has probably not changed. Other aspects of psychology, such as emotions, thoughts, and … Behaviour is Influenced by a Number of Factors 2. Cognitive-behavioral therapy itself has several variations, such as Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy. It is where one is angry with somebody but do not let them know. Thus, if three boys are walking along the road and they come across a cat, one would like to catch the cat, the other may start pelting stones at it and the third will probably run away because he has been told that it is a bad sign to have a cat cross one’s path. Cognitive: The way an individual perceives a particular situation/scenario influences his/her behavioral pattern according to this perspective. The environmental factors can be classified into immediate and direct, and remote and indirect. Welcome to PsychologyDiscussion.net! Two examples of a simple form of behaviour are given below: i. You are walking along a road when three boys start making fun of you. As a result, it makes plenty of sense to first learn these 3 behaviors; therefore that it could be easier to know and interact with every type of behavior that someone might show. Example: Keeps hale and hearty eating habits; Acquires satisfaction for a work done or problems solved without depreciating others. We make such an interesting study because we're multi-faceted. Thus, we find not only individual differences but also group differences. Psychologists have used a number of terms in explaining the purposive nature of behaviour. The latter is much more complicated and is influenced by a number of factors. Relationships could be built on or broken through the use of negative and positive communication behaviors. (b) There are certain periods of life when physiological changes proceed rather slowly. However, communication behaviors which are misunderstood can make misinformation and distance. Behaviour is Always Purposeful or Goal Directed: Characteristic # 7. Scientists think that the tears may contain undesirable elements produced by the body during times of … If human behaviour was not stable there would be utter confusion. In many instances one can find that changes in behaviour are results of interaction between growth and maturation on the one hand and learning on the other. People differ in their physiological and bodily conditions, in their past experiences, in their abilities, in their background and in short, in everything. Cognitive is refering to thinking, your thinking pattern, the way you link ideas together, how you make a decision etc. A child learns to behave as an adult. 13 Examples Of Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life. Content Guidelines 2. Some of them are physiological and the others psychological. Phobias are fears of specific things. Once you can define prosocial behavior in an abstract way, the next step to understanding is to recognize examples of prosocial behavior. Human behaviour is influenced by a number of factors. He has also been the subject of different learning experiences. The way in which human beings or animals react to various stimuli or situations can be categorized as types of behavior. Assertive people are typically direct, honest, empathic of others, confident and respect others and themselves. Over the years researchers in psychology have tried to develop two types of laws: (1) Laws which explain generality and similarity of behaviour. Logically, it follows that your thoughts will lead to a behaviour. Scott Hillard . 1. 3. (e) More than all these the fact which contributes to the stability of behaviour is the purposeful nature of human behaviour. 13 Examples Of Operant Conditioning in Everyday Life. On the other hand, there are factors not pertaining to the individual but which are external that influence behaviour. This trend of increasing differences and similarities is attributable to the fact that individuals grow and the environment changes. Behaviour Shows Individual Differences and Similarities 6. 2. Advertisers simulate scarcity through emphas… Example: Test Anxiety; shyness. It is this which makes life full of contradictions and it is this which also makes it possible for the psychologist to predict behaviour. Behaviour is Changeable to a Large Extent: Characteristic # 8. Watson (1913) launches the behavioral school of psychology, publishing an article, Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychology is actually study with regards to the mind, taking place partly through the study of behavior. It is, therefore, natural that if ten people are put in the same situation all of them do not behave alike. Example: Consuming alcohol until passed out. One can gather two points from these examples. The most striking type of prosocial behavior is altruism, where a person takes on a cost to help another person with no expectation or possibility of receiving a benefit in return. The last known frequent type of behavior is named assertive behavior. Reading to learn is a psychological purpose, while joining a group of striking boys even though a person is unwilling is a social purpose. Some of the most common examples of psychological projection that we all commit are expanded on below: 1. To the extent that purposes remain constant, behaviour shows consistency and stability. His younger sister goes around him making a noise. Thus, an individual put in different situations still shows certain characteristic ways and styles of behaviour which help us to understand and predict his behaviour and also to differentiate him from others. Watson and Rayner(1920) conditioned an orphan called Albert B (aka Littl… Consensus 3. These findings have not only helped to understand how the learning processes take place but have also helped people to learn the appropriate behaviour at each stage of the process. It will be possible to predict what people will do on a particular occasion only to the extent that we can understand and explain similarities. Thus, a six-year-old boy cannot ordinarily wield a tennis racquet in spite of practice because he has not grown enough. To further digest this complex discipline, the American Psychological Association characterizes I/O psych as the scientific study of human behavior as it concerns workplaces. Behaviour is Always Purposeful or Goal Directed and Few Others. But this does not mean that all people differ from all others, at all times and in all situations. Characteristic # 3. These changes are the result of his experience. Some of the characteristics are: 1. B.F. Skinner’s classic example of a target behavior was the subject touching its beak to a spot. On the other hand if you have friends with you and feel that you can face the situation and you are also not in a particular hurry, then probably you will pick up a fight with them. Language processing - This is the study of how language is acquired, comprehended and produced. Behaviorism was formally established with the 1913 publication of John B. Watson's classic paper, "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It. If it happened under other situations then the inappropriate behavior would be adequate. If on the other hand, for some reason, such changes do not take place, then the behaviour of the person becomes un-adaptive and looks peculiar. A physicist can safely say that any piece of iron when heated will expand. his abilities, past experience etc. Over the years, psychologists have pointed out number of different examples of shaping. Thus, purposes are more constant and stable while goals can change and one can choose from alternative goals. An Indian migrating to a foreign country very soon acquires new ways of behaviour, learns a new language and new ways of dressing. Any specific behavior might have characteristics fitting in numerous categories. Physical surroundings, the nature of events, family and friends, the larger society, and even the overall cultural and social background influence behaviour. He theorized that all o… Any behavior, implicit or explicit, requires judgment and then a decision or choice. Human behaviour, is influenced by a number of factors. Listening can be a communication behavior with a number of different techniques. In the second instance the boy’s purpose is to avoid the disturbance. They have also helped us to bring about changes in people who have learnt inappropriate forms of behaviour. Some of these common human behaviors appear to serve no real purpose, while others have explanations rooted in science. This process of the organisation of different purposes, different learning’s and different influencing factors results in an integration of behaviour. Have you ever noticed that certain ads appeal to you—or even totally convince you to buy something? We can note, interestingly, that by and large all new-born children behave alike. Here your behaviour will be determined by a number of factors. There has to be a certain order in the mess room or cafeteria. Individual Differences 5. Rather than interacting honestly you feel annoyed, upset, disappointed or irritated, you may as an alternative bottle up the feelings, shut down verbally, make obvious modifications in behavior, give angry looks, sulky, be obstructive, or put up a stone wall. He or she can be found in friendly, agreement, polite, down-to-earth, well-meaning and kind. But as they grow, individual differences appear and as they grow, even further, there is an increase both in similarities and differences. The Factors Influencing Behaviour are of Different Kinds: Characteristic # 4. Examples include volunteer work, donating money, or helping a neighbor move a heavy item of furniture. Comprehension listening, evaluation listening and critical listening tend to be communication behaviors together with positive effects. Knowing how other people communicate their feelings, assists strengthen interactions. These latter purposes are called “unconscious purposes”. Here again the purpose is the same while the goals can be different. Physiological factors relate to the physical or biological needs such as hunger, thirst etc. So Skinner used a series of approximate behaviors to “lead” the bird to the target behavior. This science is used as an analytical methodology to study and treat psychological conditions. Social behavior occurs when individuals interact with one another, engaging in a group or pairs to communicate and relate. Every person reveals certain overriding characteristics of behaviour which are revealed in almost all situations. There is also a considerable degree of similarity in behaviour among people. He cries and creates a scene. (The subject, obviously, was a bird.) Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology is a field in which psychologists work within organizations to address assessment, engagement, retention, and productivity of employees and workers. A hawker selling sweetmeat is found standing outside, but his wares are not kept clean. Crying, for example, happens due to intense or stressful emotions. 1. The scarcity principle 2. The right choice of communication behavior can make the difference between negative and a positive situation. Behavioral Approach- This is an approach to psychology that focuses on how one's environment and how external stimuli affect a person's mental states and development and how these factors specifically "train" a person for the behaviors they will be exhibiting later on. It also focuses on the psychology of reading. We will certainly have occasion to deal with this phenomenon in a later section in greater detail. The motor modules that affect behavior are also considered. 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