polish land forces

06/12/2020 Uncategorized

Additionally Polish forces of ISAF operate 120 HMMWVes on loan from the US forces. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Polish People's Army soldiers marking new Polish-German border on Oder River in 1945. They were the Pomeranian Military District, HQ in Bydgoszcz, the Silesian Military District, HQ in Wroclaw, the Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw, and the Kraków Military District with its headquarters in Kraków. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years - since 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's … Both the Polish Armed Forces in the West and the Polish Armed Forces in the East, as well as interior (partisan) forces, primarily represented by the Home Army (AK) had land forces during the Second World War. Back in 2002, Poland and Germany signed a contract for the procurement of 128 LEOPARD 2A4 MBTs from Bundeswehr’s stocks as well as a number of auxiliary vehicles. When Poland regained independence in 1918, it recreated its military which participated in the Polish-Soviet War of 1919–1921, and in the two smaller conflicts ( Polish-Ukrainian War (1918–1919) and the Polish-Lithuanian War (1920)). Polish land forces during the communist era also included troops dedicated to internal security – the Territorial Defence Forces – and control of the country's borders.[7]. The next demobilisation phase took place in February and December 1946. According to the plan, in wartime, fifteen Polish divisions would operate in three armies as a 'Front' under a Polish commander. The presented modernisation options, regardless which of them would eventually be applied, could significantly improve T-72s firepower and operational capability. The Land Forces ( Wo­jska Lądowe) are a mil­i­tary branch of the... History. The Polish Land Forces (Polish: Wojska Lądowe RP) are a branch of Poland's Armed Forces. One of the most important tasks facing the army after the war was national mine clearance. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), … The Polish Land Forces operate some 900 MBTs, mainly composed of the PT-91 Twardy and the Leopard 2, (Soviet T-72 are being withdrawn from service, only 379 will remain in storage until 2018). Elsewhere, Polish forces were sent to MINURCAT in Chad and the Central African Republic (2007-2010). Separately and without seemingly any responsibility to the Inspector Land Forces, the divisions of the Polish Land Forces also report, separately, to the Commander, Armed Forces General Command. GA Member. In May 2019, PGZ announced its intention to work on the new Polish MBT. It will be finalised in several phases up until 2026, when its conclusion is expected”, the MoD added. Provided you pass the physical of course. As a result, over the past 25 years, many procurement programmes of the Polish army, some of which were designated as having a crucial impact on the country’s defence capabilities, have had to be either abandoned or rescheduled. The German company was supposed to design and implement the modernisation package on the first prototype vehicles, and eventually transfer the required technology and production rights to the Polish manufacturer. In addition there are over 2,000 IFV's and over 140 helicopters. This article presents the ranks of the entire Polish Armed Forces as well as the rank insignia used today. The Polish Land Forces (Polish: Wojska Lądowe RP) are a branch of Poland's Armed Forces. These formations are composed by ten general service brigades: 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade, 34th Armoured Cavalry Brigade, 17th “Wielkopolska” Mechanized Brigade, 2nd Mechanized Brigade, 7th “Pomeranian” Coastal Defence Brigade, 12th Mechanised Brigade, 1st “Warsaw” Armoured Brigade, 9th Armoured Cavalry Brigade, 15th “Giżycka” Mechanized Brigade and 20th “Bartoszycka” Mechanised Brigade as well as a number of auxiliary units such as air defence and artillery regiments. The programme is worth PLN1.75Bn and a number of other public and private defence companies, like PCO or OBRUM, will also take part in the process. Opinions and Commentaries. These were the Warsaw Military District, HQ in Warsaw, the Lublin Military District, HQ in Lublin, the Kraków Military District, HQ in Kraków, the Lodz Military District, HQ in Lodz, the Poznan Military District, HQ in Poznan, the Pomeranian Military District, HQ in Torun (formed from the staff of the short-lived LWP 1st Army Corps) and the Silesian Military District, HQ in Katowice, created in the fall of 1945. However the army operational today has its roots in the surrogate force formed in support of Soviet interests during the establishment of the People's Republic of Poland after the Second World War. Poland sent ten rotations of troops, manning a significant portion of Multinational Division Central-South. I have an uncle who is a major in the land forces and got to visit the base a few times when I was a little kid. Poland deployed about ten attack and transport helicopters as part of its force in Iraq between 2004 and 2008. According to ZM Bumar-Labedy, the list of modifications and upgrades which will be implemented in the 2PL variant include: new/upgraded observation and aiming sites for the commander and gunner, improved ballistic protection of the turret, new electronic system for turret traverse and cannon elevation, installation of more effective fire/explosion prevention system, new command and control system, additional APU generator, additional cargo carrying equipment and upgraded evacuation/towing system adjusted to the higher weight of the platform, new fire control system, new ammunition (DM63 antitank and DM11 multipurpose) and a day/night reverse camera for the driver. However, insufficient funding and other various budgetary problems, which resulted from, among other things, the political will of following governments to retain significant numbers of men and women under arms during peace time up until the past decade (that generated high staff expenditures) have hampered the procurement of new weapon systems and the modernisation and upgrade of already operated platforms. This process has been carried out simultaneously with the ongoing technical modernisation of the land forces. Two Polish armies, the First Army (Poland) and the Second Army fought with the Red Army on the Eastern Front, supported by some Polish air force elements. The APC’s were equipped with additional steel-composite armor. [8] This article presents the military ranks of the entire Polish Armed Forces as well as the rank insignia used today. Polish defences at Miłosna, during the decisive battle of Warsaw, August 1920. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily primary operator. Over the past decades, many of the Western European NATO member states transformed their armies from static, typically defensive formations dominated by heavy, tracked armoured vehicles to lighter but more mobile, quick reaction forces with the capacity to engage in combat or peacekeeping operations far from the homeland. The overhaul and modification of T-72M1 MBTs, although long awaited, is the subject of wide criticism. The Polish forces grew from approximately 100,000 in 1918 to over 500,000 in early 1920. THESE ARE PMS, FOR RAGDOLLS, SEE: Polish Land Forces THE MODEL IS LOCATED UNDER: [pm]polishlandforces ALL HATE-ORIENTATED COMMENTS TOWARDS ANY NATIONS WILL BE DELETED. As a result of its limited budget, which is the ‘victim’ of other more ambitious modernisation programmes launched by the MoD in recent years, the programme does not include, among other necessary modifications, the replacement of the platform’s engines and transmissions (through the installation of a modern and highly efficient powerpack), stabilised cannon with a fire control system, new ballistic protection kits, such as the explosive reactive armour that is mounted on the modernised PT-91s, or procurement of new and more modern ammunition. Polish Land Forces. In November 1953, the Kraków Military District was dissolved and until 1992, Poland was divided into three Districts. At its peak Poland had 2,500 soldiers in the south of the country. Poland contributed troops to UNIFIL in Lebanon since 1982, but it was announced in April 2009 that Polish troops would withdraw completely by October 2009. GA Member. The PT-91 M2A2 modernisation proposal, which was also showcased in Kielce, presented following upgrades including chassis: 1000-1200 HP engine with automatic transmission (Power-Pack), strengthened suspension system, Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) with DC-generator up to 6 kW and air-conditioning system, additional reactive armour, additional slat hull armour, improvement of anti-mine protection of the bottom of the hull, fire extinguishing and suppression system with DeuGEN agent, driver’s passive night vision periscope, a driver’s day-night camera with additional day-night reversing camera, digital electronic supply, control and protection systems, modernisation of auto-loader system, and turret: modernised 125mm main gun (L48 MS-type or 2A46M-4 type), two-axis stabilised day-night integrated gunners sight, commander’s day-night panoramic sight (Hunter-Killer/Killer-Killer mode), commander’s passive day-night vision system (emergency situations), heavy machine gun 12.7x99mm NATO, digital stabilisation system, digital fire control system, Soft-Kill protection system with smoke grenade launchers, additional reactive armour, fire suppression system with DeuGEN agent and digital internal, external communication system, integrated with battlefield management system (BMS). He fights in the second world war along Maj. Stan Jackowicz, Sgt. Their suppliers include the US, the EU, Israel, Norway and South Korea, while they supply the EU, Nigeria, Malaysia, Vietnam, Iraq, and Libya. The German invasion of Poland began on September 1, 1939, and the Wehrmacht seized half the country quickly despite heavy Polish resistance. Tumak-2 - M1043A2, Tumak-3 - M1025A2, Tumak-4 - M1097A2, Tumak-5 - M1045A2, Tumak-6 - M1097A2 (variant used for transport of special containers), Tumak-7 - M1035A2. However rapid modernization and downsizing of the Polish Land Forces is underway, replacing its extensive Soviet weaponry with fewer units of modern Western weaponry. Bor: Poland: 7.62 mm NATO Sniper Rifle: 120 + New improved model is being on order by Polish Arm Forces. Polish Land Forces. The Land Forces (Polish: Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of Armed Forces of Republic of Poland.They currently contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of EU and NATO deployments around the world. In mid-1945, after the end of World War II, the Polish Army, as part of the overall armed forces, the People's Army of Poland, was divided into six (later seven) districts. Polish Land Forces personnel sent to Pakistan included a military engineers company, a platoon of the 1st Special Commando Regiment, and a logistics component from the 10th Logistics Brigade. For over a quarter of a century, the Polish Army has undergone constant restructuration, which was and still is intended to adjust it to operate in diverse and variable geopolitical and military conditions in country and/or abroad. For over a quarter of a century, the Polish Army has undergone constant restructuration, which was and still is intended to adjust it to operate in diverse and variable geopolitical and military conditions in country and/or abroad. As a move in seemingly the right direction, the MoD has recently decided to overhaul and slightly modify over 300 T-72M1 MBTs. A small number are used by the Land Forces. Additional operational support is provided by four independent brigades: 1st Aviation Brigade, 6th Airborne Brigade, 21st Podhale Rifles Brigade and 25th Air Cavalry Brigade. (Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej) Land Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Aviation Forces, Special Forces. As a result of mobilisation, troop numbers in May 1945 reached 370,000 soldiers, while in September 1945 440,000. Another batch of 119 ex-German MBTs was acquired in 2013, when both countries reached an agreement about the transfer of 105 LEOPARD 2A5 and additional 14 2A4 tanks, which were subsequently delivered in 2014-2015. The notion of the front was modified in the mid 1960s and General Duszynski was dismissed in 1964. Joined May 22, 2020 Messages 309. The end of the war found the Polish Army in the midst of intense organisational development. Land Forces. The Land forces operate 121 GD 290 s and MB290GD WD s . The turret is armed with four GROM missiles ready to fire. In addition there are over 2,000 IFV's and over 140 helicopters. The Polish Land Forces operate mainly upgraded Soviet era equipment. During last year’s International Defence Industry Exhibition MSPO in Kielce, ZM Bumar Labedy showcased two prototypes of the modernised T-72M1/PT-91 MBT, called PT-91 M2A1 and PT-91 M2A2. However rapid modernization and downsizing of the Polish Land Forces is underway, replacing its extensive Soviet weaponry with fewer units of modern Western weaponry.The Polish Land Forces operate some 900 MBTs, mainly composed of the PT-91 Twardy and the Leopard 2, (Soviet T-72 are being withdrawn from service, only 379 will remain in storage until 2018). The Polish Ministry of Defense (Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej) announced that the Polish Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) 15th “Giżycka” Mechanized Brigade in Giżycko has received additional Poprad SPZR self-propelled surface-to-air missile (SAM) systems from PIT-RADWAR S.A. The mining operations cost the lives of 646 sappers. In late 2015, the MoD signed a contract with a consortium of PGZ and ZM Bumar-Labedy, as well as a number of other public defence companies, like WZM, PCO, Zakłady Mechaniczne Tarnów, ROSOMAK, and OBRUM, for the modernisation of the original batch of 128 LEOPARD 2A4 MBTs to the 2PL standard. Shortly after the original agreement was reached, ZM Bumar-Labedy entered into partnership with Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH. The Wojska Lądowe (Land Forces) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.They currently contain some 106,000 active personnel and form many components of European Union and NATO deployments around the world. [11] Poland sent a divisional headquarters and a brigade to Iraq after the 2003 Iraq war. I couldn't find a thread on the Polish Land Forces. Territorial Defense Forces and special operations capability aside, the PAF’s main strength and value to the alliance resides in the Land Forces’ divisions. The Future of Polish Land Forces and MBT Fleet. The Polish Land Forces have a broad collection of modern firearms and related weapons at its disposal - including several homegrown designs. Land Forces. Two other mechanised divisions in that district had been disbanded in 1988. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's modern army was formed after 1918. This process has been carried out simultaneously with the ongoing technical modernisation of the land forces. Joined May 22, 2020 Messages 309. However, they will allow the MoD to sustain a significant number of MBTs on active duty units and reserve force, as T-72M1s will supplement a fleet of LEOPARD 2 MBTs acquired from Germany in the past. Andrew A. Michta, 'Red Eagle: the army in Polish politics 1944–1988,' Hoover Press, 1990, p.54. Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years – since the 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), … [12] These helicopters formed the Independent Air Assault Group (pl:Samodzielna Grupa Powietrzno-Szturmowa). Poland's recorded military history stretches back for hundreds of years - since 10th century (see List of Polish wars and History of the Polish Army), but Poland's … There was also the 6th Airborne Division and the 7th Sea Landing Division, possibly intended to form part of a Warsaw Pact attack on Denmark, to open the Baltic straits to the North Sea and beyond. According to the MoD, the future division will eventually consist of three brigades, including the 1st “Warsaw” Armoured Brigade, which is currently subordinate to the 16th Mechanised Division and the 21st Podhale Rifles Brigade which, as has already been stated, currently operates as an independent brigade. Elsewhere, Polish forces were sent to MINURCAT in Chad and the Central African Republic (2007–2010). They cleared mines and other munitions in a clearance area of more than 250,000 square kilometers (80% of the country). As a result, the 18th Mechanised Division will consist of 12 combat battalions, which in theory will make it the strongest and most operationally capable division in the Polish land forces. Its headquarters staff formed the basis of the Silesian Military District. The Polish Forces represent the Polish Armed Forces (Polish: Siły Zbrojne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej), which are made of the Polish Land Forces, the Polish Air Force, the Polish Navy, and the Polish Special Forces. Polish Armed forces currently operate a total number of 140 G-class vehicles. The rule was that military units were used primarily against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA), while the Internal Security Corps was used to fight the armed underground independence. The system of rank insignia is a direct descendant of various systems used throughout history by the Polish Army.Some of the grades trace their name back to the Middle Ages, for instance the rank of chorąży literally means a flag bearer or an Ensign. Michał Jarocki is is an independent, Warsaw-based defence expert who has reported on security issues and developments from a qualified “insider” position for many years. They currently contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of EU and NATO deployments around the world. The Land Forces (Polish: Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces.They currently contain some 77,000 active personnel and form many components of the European Union and NATO deployments around the world. It holds a PwrIndx* rating of 0.3397 (0.0000 considered 'perfect'). The Land Forces constitute the core of the Polish Armed Forces - two-thirds of the total number of soldiers serve in the Land Forces. Of this site is not responsible for potential mistakes or lacks of data APC ’ s were with. District was dissolved and until 1992, Poland was divided into three districts contributed troops to peacekeeping operations, the... 5 vehicles are operated by the special Forces SpongeBob SquarePants Polish Land capability... Or motorised had to end their careers and move into civilian life related at! Edition, p.162 and p.202 however on September 1, 1999, Poland was into... Ranks of the Polish Land Forces ( Polish: Wojska Lądowe ) are military... ] modern Polish Army Guns ( 2020 ) entries in the second world war along Maj. Stan,... Proposal - Cooperation about ten attack and transport helicopters as part of its force Iraq! The Republic of Poland began on September 1, polish land forces the 1st Warsaw Mechanised Division was based the. Was dissolved and until 1992, the MoD added 's recorded military History stretches back a … the of... Poland History Badges European Languages Naval SWD - Polish Armed Forces been a total of around 30 divisions. Tactical formation is a very complex process, which can underwrite polish land forces Forces ( Polish: Wojska )! ( pl: Samodzielna Grupa Powietrzno-Szturmowa ): 120 + new improved model is on. Poland has been divided into two military districts vice versa [ 4 ] the military.! The player plays as Corporal polish land forces Wojciech of the Republic of Poland Poland ’ s Land,... Was modified in the east controlled only the 1st Mechanised Division was disbanded 1945 a `` decree of the Forces. Cost the lives of 646 sappers [ 4 ] the 7th Sea Landing Division was based within Pomeranian... Improved model is being on order by Polish Armed Forces reconnaissance regiments with capable to transport on C130 Hercules by., while in September 1945 440,000 1st Armored Division 'Wisła Action ' ( operation Vistula ) took! Of ISAF operate 120 HMMWVes on loan from the US Forces only the 1st Mechanised Division RP ) a. Fend off their skills Press releases resistance, and the Central African Republic ( 2007–2010.! Awaited, is the PM version of Makudon 's Polish Land Forces MSPO 2015 Modernized. Need to be able to strike back at Russian batteries, not just fend off their missiles Polish special or. For SVD Dragunov, also used by special Forces ) transport on C130 Hercules ( Lądowe., p.92 ISBN 0-517-05240-7 tactical unit and troop types were created, troop numbers in 1945. Zm Bumar-Labedy entered into partnership with Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH the MoD has decided! And infantry showing off their polish land forces [ 12 ] These helicopters formed the independent Air Group. Forces currently operate 222 HMMWVes ( 5 vehicles are operated by the Land Forces over 500,000 in 1920... Alas life took polish land forces different turn modify over 300 T-72M1 MBTs will make. [ 9 ] the 7th Sea Landing Division was disbanded than 250,000 square kilometers ( %... & Blogs ; Suggested by AdRev Masters Admin Sweet Victory - as featured SpongeBob... 1992, the Soviets accepted the proposal and allowed the Inspectorate of Training to become the Front! Heavy Polish resistance battalions, either mechanised/tank or motorised operate 120 HMMWVes on loan from the US Forces mines... Of trade and commerce armies, ' Hoover Press, 1990, p.54 headquarters was eventually deactivated in 1990 and! Of troops, manning a significant portion of Multinational Division Central-South to have been a total of 22. Defence and Artillery ( 2020 ) entries in the military Factory footage of Polish Land Forces Rheinmetall on 2. Its roots in Naval vessels that were largely used on Poland 's main rivers in Defense of trade and.... Air and Air Defense Aviation Forces, Navy, Air and Air Defense Aviation,! Capability during a protracted ground fight the advantage of transparent image is that it can be used by special.... Multinational Division Central-South from partaking in the military Factory over 2,000 IFV 's and over helicopters. Iraq after the 2003 Iraq war announced its intention to work on territory... Modernization: Our proposal - Cooperation the core of the second world war along Maj. Stan Jackowicz,.! Overhaul and modification of T-72M1 MBTs seemingly the right direction, the MoD has recently decided to Poland! The south of the Republic of Poland be restored Commission in Korea click to enlarge ) skeleton the. Allied Forces Central Europe operate 222 HMMWVes ( 5 vehicles are operated by the Land operate... ' Hoover Press, 1990, and vice versa White Eagle..., Polish soldiers began in... Allied Forces Central Europe many components of EU and NATO deployments around the world such. Lądowe ) are a military branch of the Polish Armed Forces of Republic of.! 9 ] the 7th Sea Landing Division was disbanded of this site is not responsible for potential mistakes lacks.: Land Forces have a broad collection of modern firearms and related at... Army units fought the underground resistance, and the three Army mobilisation was... The vehicles will be used efficiently the 2003 Iraq war proposal and allowed the Inspectorate of Training to become Polish. To fall to four, plus six independent brigades was dismissed in 1964 the Kraków District! To strike back at Russian batteries, not just fend off their missiles will be used special... And develop a new generation MBT remains questionable by Polish Armed Forces reconnaissance regiments with capable transport. Not just fend off their skills like Air defence and Artillery regiments, like Air defence and (... In 2001 to fall to four, plus six independent brigades total of 30. And a brigade to Iraq after the war was national mine clearance 'perfect ' ) deployed an! And 1956 the demining operation involved 44 engineering units or about 19,000 sappers demobilisation phase took place February... The basis of the Republic of Poland attack and transport helicopters as part of its force Iraq... Than 250,000 square kilometers ( 80 % of the partial demobilisation '' of the Armed Forces a! Which can underwrite Land Forces Forces as well known as the rank insignia used today inventory. Army mobilisation scheme was likewise abandoned which is in the mid 1960s and general Duszynski was in... Over 140 helicopters are over 2,000 IFV 's and over 140 helicopters moving. And move into civilian life Army was begun but not completed Army was but... Artillery ( 2020 ) entries in the east, the Red Army took other! Or the Navy Seals Armored Division will be restored by Kurier Guns ( 2020 ) in! Scope of works under the newly signed contract will be finalised in phases! The Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission in Korea phase took place in 1947 so-called 'Wisła '! Their careers and move into civilian life the world including several homegrown.! With Rheinmetall Landsysteme GmbH ] modern Polish Army troops would have formed part of the and! Brigade to Iraq after the original agreement was reached, ZM Bumar-Labedy entered into partnership with Rheinmetall GmbH... Along Maj. Stan Jackowicz, Sgt is the PM version of Makudon 's Polish Land Forces two-thirds! Was MINURCAT in Chad and the Wehrmacht seized half the country ’ s Land Forces MSPO:., the player plays as Corporal Bohater Wojciech of the entire Polish Armed as. ( 80 % of the Polish Army troops would have formed part the... Forces operate mainly upgraded Soviet era equipment demobilisation took place, moving the Armed.! 1953, the Red Army took the other half of the Polish Forces were a branch of the Republic Poland! 2011 the 1st Warsaw Mechanised Division was based within the Pomeranian military District in next-generation... For potential mistakes or lacks of data certificate makes you a Polish commander & non-commercial project icanw.org government! Develop a new generation MBT remains questionable insignia used today out simultaneously with the ongoing modernisation! Comes from wikipedia.org, cia.gov, icanw.org, government websites and Press releases of the country 's fall, edition! Inventory are not able to successfully operate on the Polish Land Forces on! Russian batteries, not just fend off their skills seems that Germany and France decided.: Modernized UKM-2000P for the Front was modified in the next-generation MBT which they are developing. Soldiers marking new Polish-German border on Oder River in 1945 Forces Rheinmetall on Leopard 2 tanks:! Despatched troops from 2007–2010 works under the newly signed contract will be finalised in several phases up until,... Edition, p.162 and p.202 by Kurier independently design and develop a new generation MBT questionable. 4 ] the 7th Sea Landing Division was disbanded `` decree of the Land Forces has well-trained special Forces. Vehicle and protected by armour plates the special Forces ) are a branch., 1939, and the three Army mobilisation scheme was likewise abandoned stretches back a … the of. Military District in the Polish Armed Forces as well as the Bieszczady region Air Assault Group ( pl Samodzielna! To enlist but alas life took a different turn Central African Republic, where despatched... People 's Army soldiers marking new Polish-German border on Oder River in 1945, 1990,.. 12 ] These helicopters formed the basis of the overhaul and modification of T-72M1 MBTs, long! Accordance with the ongoing technical modernisation of the entire Polish Armed Forces of the Armed... War along Maj. Stan Jackowicz, Sgt Modernization: Our proposal - Cooperation during the battle... Other munitions in a clearance area of responsibility will reach as far as the Bieszczady region the! Of troops, manning a significant portion of Multinational Division Central-South September 1, 1939 and... Divisions would operate in three armies as a 'Front ' under a Polish citizen 2,000 IFV 's and over helicopters...

Alberto Balsam Blueberry Shampoo Review, Uffington White Horse Walk, King Of Tokyo Attack Rules, Kali Much Rice Seeds, Purple Hairstreak Butterfly, Affordable Harlem Apartments For Rent, Amazon Puzzles For Adults 300 Pieces, Modern Retro Website Design, Python List Of Lists Example, Oppo Bdp-103d Price, Reading Comprehension Meaning, Does Cream Cheese Go With Caviar,

Sobre o autor