The two can be connected only through a chain of inference, which involves reasoning from what one knows and observes to form explanations, conclusions, or predictions, as discussed in the following section. Teachers can use information from these types of assessment to adapt their instruction to meet students’ needs, which may be difficult to anticipate and are likely to vary from one student to another. Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. The Foundation Phase curriculum promotes equality of opportunity and values, and celebrates diversity. The Foundation Phase Profile was introduced in September 2015 and it is statutory for schools to use the Profile to undertake baseline assessments of children at the start of Reception Year. This means that most of the final assessment needs to take place early in the term - before I get a chance to review the material with my students one last time. The purpose of an assessment determines priorities, and the context of use imposes constraints on the design. Keywords: Appreciative Inquiry Theory, Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement, Foundation Phase teachers, Qualitative research, Reflective Model INTRODUCTION Worldwide governments are confronted by the challenges of curriculum change to meet regional, national and global needs (Pienaar & Raymond, 2013). Assessment results will be misleading, or instruction will be ineffective. Foundation Phase teachers use formative assessment tasks to diagnose learner difficulties, and to improve their methods of instruction in Number in the Numeracy Learning Programme. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Natural Science in the Foundation Phase is understood as scientific knowledge, process skills, and values and attitudes, which together should foster scientific literacy. The assessment should be in sync and supportive of learning, it should be and should be valid in nature, the assessment should be proper and manageable, it should support the judgment of a teacher and lastly, it should support accountability. In the classroom context, effective teachers use various forms of assessment to inform day-to-day and month-to-month decisions about next steps for instruction, to give students feedback about their progress, and to motivate students. But the heightened, and possibly exaggerated, attention paid to standardized testing in the U.S. educational system can overshadow the essential point that even assessments meeting the highest technical requirements are still, by their nature, imprecise to some degree. The committee recognizes that all assessment is in a sense “formative” in that it is intended to provide feedback to the system to inform next steps for learning. Such assessments may not adhere to a rigid administration, scoring, and interpretation process. This study explores foundation phase teachers’ assessment literacy, and their understanding and use of formative and summative assessment. Thus to have an effective assessment, all three vertices of the triangle must work together in synchrony. For example, a school whose students have higher test scores is not necessarily better than one whose students have lower test scores. Each also plays a role in making decisions and setting policies for assessment, curriculum, and instruction, although the locus of power shifts depending on the type of decision involved. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. There are 3 main and primary purpose for continuous assessment: Enhancing the student’s learning. Students can use this information to determine which skills and knowledge they need to study further and what adjustments in their thinking they need to make. Some features of the site may not work correctly. The Review Team has visited schools across the country and seen at first hand many examples of excellent work. Note that all of the issues introduced briefly below are discussed more fully in Chapter 6. Assessment in the Foundation Phase sets out recommended techniques and tools to assess learners’ knowledge, skills, attitudes and values, and applies these to all subjects prescribed by CAPS. These three elements, which are discussed in detail below, may be explicit or implicit, but an assessment cannot be designed and implemented without some consideration of each. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Validity refers to the degree to which evidence and theory support the interpretations of assessment scores. For instance, many state tests are used for both individual and program assessment purposes. This is also your chance to adjust the overall lesson plan to overcome any unexpected challenges that may have arisen, preparing you for the next time you teach this lesson. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. The Foundation Phase Profile consists of the following elements. In the context of classroom assessment, the interpretation is often made less formally by the teacher, and is usually based on an intuitive or qualitative model rather than a formal statistical one. The purpose of an assessment determines priorities, and the context of use imposes constraints on the design. Reliability denotes the consistency of an assessment’s results when the assessment procedure is repeated on a population of individuals or groups. Reflections from an ITE Program in South Africa, A blueprint for data-based English reading literacy instructional decision-making, Implementation of annual national assessment in the intermediate phase at King Cetshwayo district schools, A Study of Classroom Assessment Literacy of Primary School Teachers, Enhancing teacher assessment practices in South African schools: Evaluation of the assessment resource banks, Pedagogies for Preservice Assessment Education: Supporting Teacher Candidates' Assessment Literacy Development. © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. In the concluding section, I outline the kinds of research studies that will be needed to help realize a reformed vision of classroom assessment. 1. He is a former high school mathematics teacher and currently one of the editors of Vector. A crucial point is that each of the three elements of the assessment triangle not only must make sense on its own, but also must connect to each of the other two elements in a meaningful way to lead to an effective assessment and sound inferences. The above video may be from a third-party source. Such problems can be ameliorated if, instead, decisions about both instruction and assessment are guided by a model of learning in the domain. information about the attainment of individual students, as well as comparative information about how one individual performs relative to others. Child/adult Directed Activity was directed by either the child or the adult. Measurement science offers various methods for using available evidence to make determinations about the competencies of learners. A Systematic Review of Assessment Literacy Measures, Assessment in the Kindergarten Classroom: An Empirical Study of Teachers’ Assessment Approaches, Teachers’ assessment literacy and attitudes, An Investigation into Formative Assessment Practices of Teachers in Selected Schools in Fort Beaufort in South Africa, Reconceptualising educational assessment in South Africa — testing times for teachers, Selected teachers’ understanding of assessment four years after the implementation of the New Assessment Policy, South African Journal of Childhood Education, View 15 excerpts, cites background, results and methods, By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our. Although current curriculum, instruction, and assessment are designed on the basis of implicit conceptions of learning, those conceptions tend to be fragmented, outdated, and not clearly delineated. The cognition corner of the triangle refers to a theory or set of beliefs about how students represent knowledge and develop competence in a subject domain (e.g., fractions). A cognitive theory of how people develop competence in a domain also provides clues about the types of interpretation methods that are appropriate for transforming the data about student performance into assessment results. As discussed in Chapter 3, theories of student learning and understanding can take different forms and encompass several levels and types of knowledge representation that include social and contextual components. This study explores foundation phase teachers’ assessment literacy, and their understanding and use of formative and summative assessment. teacher assessments made at the end of Key Stage 2 (i.e. Realizing the new approach to assessment set forth in this report will depend on making compatible changes in curriculum and instruction. Like all teaching and learning, assessment needs to be inclusive in its approach to assessing learners‟ For instance, many state tests are used for both individual and program assessment purposes. Principles for designing and using these new kinds of assessments are presented, and examples are used to illustrate the principles. Assessment also depends on which tools are available to make sense of the evidence. In general, however, the more purposes a single assessment aims to serve, the more. Increasingly, assessments are viewed as a way not only to measure performance, but also to change it, by encouraging teachers and students to modify their practices. But first it should be noted that the cognitive model underlying performance on this set of problems is more straightforward than would be the case if one were trying to model performance on less structured problems. As with evaluating teachers, care must be taken not to extend the results of assessments at a particular school to reach conclusions not supported by the evidence. The Joining and Assessment Phase. States tend to determine policies on assessment for program evaluation, while teachers have greater control over assessment for learning. Decisions about assessment, curriculum, and instruction are further complicated by actions taken at different levels of the educational system, including the classroom, the school or district, and the state. The example presented in Box 2–1 is a cognitive model of the rules learners use to solve balance-scale problems. Sophisticated statistical methods have been developed to enhance the accuracy of assessments and describe precisely their margins of error. Second, U.S. society generally places greater value on large-scale than on classroom assessment. Our use of the term “cognition” is not meant to imply that the theory must necessarily come from a single cognitive research perspective. More recent phases were the integration phase (1960–1980) at which time learning disabilities were recognized within school programs, and the contemporary phase (1980 to the present), which reflects emerging and future directions. The interpretation corner of the triangle encompasses all the methods and tools used to reason from fallible observations. Often what is lacking is a central theory around which the three functions can be coordinated. Carpet Child was sitting on carpet. Three foundational elements, comprising what is referred to in this report as the “assessment triangle,” underlie all assessments. Siegler (1976) examined how people develop an understanding of the components underlying the principle of torque in balance-scale problems. Often a single assessment will be used for multiple purposes. The tasks selected for observation should be developed with the purpose of the assessment in mind. Third, there is a need for better alignment among the various purposes of assessment. As well as working directly with over 1,000 schools, we partnered with GL Assessment to design the Foundation Phase Profile for the Welsh Government. The three are represented as corners of a triangle because each is connected to and dependent on the other two. Then predict that the side with the greater torque will go down. The purpose of this module is to expose qualifying graduates to a range of Foundation Phase teaching methods, approaches and strategies. The methods and practices of familiar tests and test theory are special cases of reasoning from evidence. The tasks to which students are asked to respond on an assessment are not arbitrary. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Repeated disruptive behaviour and incidences Large-scale assessments—which are administered at the direction of users external to the classroom—also provide. Alignment is difficult to achieve, however. … Ready to take your reading offline? What is measured and how the information is used depend to a great extent on the curriculum that is taught and the instructional methods used. Weight problems—Unequal amounts of weights, equidistant from the fulcrum. Any model of learning underlying an assessment will be a simplification of what is going on in the mind of the examinee and in the social situation within which the assessment takes place. It helps identifying the first gaps in your instruction. An assessment is a tool designed to observe students’ behavior and produce data that can be used to draw reasonable inferences about what students know. Demystifying the process of assessment for learning in the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS), this book explains in straightforward language how to put principles into practice. This is not necessarily a problem as long as the assessment designers and users recognize the compromises and trade-offs involved. Ask students to reflect on the group work process. When sailors came to my island in the 1500s, I was friendly and walked right up to them. Assessment results are only estimates of what a person knows and can do. If any of the functions is not well synchronized, it will disrupt the balance and skew the educational process. • report on assessment for learning and assessment of learning. Purpose: This module complements the modules Management in Foundation Phase, Curriculum Studies, Sociology of Education and Assessment in Education in the BEd (Foundation Phase) programme. The standards discussed in Chapter 1 outline the goals of learning, whereas curriculum sets forth the more specific means to be used to achieve those ends. For instance, on the basis of research with learners, developmental psychologist Robert Siegler (1998) has identified rules (both correct and erroneous) learners appear to use to solve problems in various mathematical and scientific domains. The child’s task is to predict which (if either) side would go down if the lever were released. Connections Between Observation and Interpretation. These targets of inference for a given assessment will be a subset of the larger theory of how people learn the subject matter. Since 1990, NAEP results have also been available for participating states, providing them with an independent source of information about how their students are achieving relative to the nation as a whole. SOURCE: Siegler (1976). In reality, however, this is often not the case. Assessment Literacy for Teachers: Faddish or Fundamental? The resource includes all the using measuring skills for the Foundation Phase. In assessment, one has the opportunity to structure some small corner of the world to make observations. IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE ABSTRACT The study aims at estab lishing whether Foundation Phas e schooling provides a proper foundation for the promotion of scientific literacy. Assessments serve a vital role in providing information to help students, parents, teachers, administrators, and policy makers reach decisions. All rights reserved. When stakes are high, it is particularly important that the inferences drawn from an assessment be valid, reliable, and fair (American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education, 1999; NRC, 1999a). They might concern tendencies in behavior, conceptions of phenomena, available strategies, or levels of development. 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