applications and implications of assessment to teaching and learning

06/12/2020 Uncategorized

The study focuses on the teaching practice of Physical Education (PE) at one of the schools where ‘the bus for inclusion’ stops every morning. a strong impact on the educational policy of many countries (see oecd.org). A certain type of videogames, exergames, is put forward as interesting tools in schools since they combine IT-technology and physical activity. The authors remarked that while more authentic forms of assessment in physical education have been evidenced over the last three decades, the extent to which alternative assessment practices have become common practice in the teaching of physical education is yet to be established. The codes after each quotation M1, M2, M3, F1, F2 and F3 represent six of the teachers in the teacher learning community, where M, Figure 1 is useful for structuring the argumentation concerning the different possible conse-, The findings show that AfL can be realised in various ways. Dessuten ønsker en å avdekke i hvilken grad praksislærerne vektlegger betydningen av formativ tilbakemelding i veiledningssamtaler. In phase one of the consultation process, in a cross-programme initiative, current students, Alumni, Faculty and relevant external stakeholders were surveyed in relation to Teaching, Learning and Assessment in Hibernia College. Skor hasil uji coba yang diperoleh dari siswa dikorelasikan dengan menggunakan teknik pearson product moment. It will make us look good, Although reflections like these are relevant in all areas of the educational system, in this article, grading. A common point of view is, teachers often take students’ behaviour and attitudes, such as attendance and willingness to exert, themselves, into account rather than their knowledge of the subject (Svennberg et al., 2014; Webb, et al., 2008). ), ‘No assessment, no learning’ exploring student participation in assessment in Norwegian physical education (PE), Interactive Methods for Students Life Quality Formation, Organisation of physical education at the university based on students’ constitutional types and health groups, Beyond Fragmentation: Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe, 'It's the other assessment that is the key': three Norwegian physical education teachers' engagement (or not) with assessment for learning, Assessment in physical education: A sociocultural perspective, Inventing Our Selves: Psychology, Power, and Personhood, Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement, Assembling a health[y] subject: Risky and shameful pedagogies in health education, An integrative summary of the research literature and implications for a new theory of formative assessment, Teaching traditions and learning. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 21(1), 5–31. 58 • Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind Chapter 5 Assessment of learning needs to be very carefully constructed so that the information upon which decisions are made is of the highest quality. The results provide discussion points about reasons for the way teachers are grading. that is operated by the following five key strategies: , Hay and Penney (2012) discuss assessment from. Should the students never feel sat-, Here the ‘terrors of performativity’ are evident (cf. When control is the dominant form of governance in the teacher’s way of realising AfL, the, exercises are formulated on the basis of the expected outcomes expressed in the knowledge cri-. reach the open goals by self-regulation, in terms of individual choice and personal responsibility. to learn to master this skill of solving cases. This tendency. work of Foucault in a field concerned with issues of power and governance in school. subjects that are fostered and (c) what is characteristic of the subject content. How-, e high status of the written word may enhance a, ning and ability to cooperate with their classmates. On the other hand, they can also facilitate student demonstration of deep learning if essay questions or topics are appropriately selected. In our analysis, governance implies that people’s actions contribute to other, people’s actions being re-orientated, corrected or strengthened in specific directions (see O, 2010). In the end, however, when assessment is seen as learning - for students as well as for teachers - it becomes most informative and generative for students and teachers alike. Even though some students may benefit from this, the, autonomous individual does not necessarily appreciate the governance through freedom, as it. Learning is generally assessed in increments over time to evaluate the efficacy of the teaching methods used. Is social inclusion through PE, sport and PA still a rhetoric? So, the students cannot choose which, like to develop. Site Development: Digital Strategies (Division of Communications) In the debate on assessment, AfL appears to be a solution, to such problems (Hay and Penney, 2012; Lo, Today, AfL is marketed as a crucial concept in the quest for an improved goal attainment (see, Wiliam and Leahy, 2015). We conclude that the need of embedding AfL in learning theory may well be one of the strongest challenges to enacting AfL in physical education. As with the work of Leahy, (2014), this study engaged with the ‘lived sites’ of governmentality, in order to examine how, power operates within the assessment practice. Areas covered include the influence of the student, home, school, curricula, teacher, and teaching strategies. It is important, then, that the underlying logic and measurement . The focus has rather been towards the teacher’s assessment practices. Even though the main, group interviews (Cohen et al., 2000). goals by means of peer assessment. The student’s, opportunity to choose and take responsibility for his or her own way of reaching the learning, intentions is a characteristic of this way of realising AfL. International competition, manifested, through Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) tests and other comparisons, has. for the teacher, the student and the subject content. Let us discuss its uses briefly: (i) Teaching: Asserts that facilitation can be better understood if the Results suggest that the contexts of mentoring structured the. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]. Feedback enhances learning and performance. Learning is the assessment that becomes public and results in statements or symbols about how well students are learning. Divided into three parts, Assessment in Physical Education makes an important contribution to our understanding of the socio-cultural issues associated with assessment in physical education, in terms of its systemic development as well as at the level of pedagogic relations between physical education teachers and their students. According to Brown and Knight, “Self-assessment involves the use of evaluative processes in which judgement is involved, where self-grading is the marking of one’s own work against a set of criteria and potential outcomes provided by a third person, usually the [instructor].” (Pg. But, if the students’ different, prerequisites are addressed in the teaching, a reflexive assessment practice is also required. Videotapes of the student teachers' practices and audiotapes of coaching conversations with their mentors constituted the main data. Educational Review, 57(1), 71–90; Dagkas, 2018 Dagkas, S. (2018). Discourse and the Legitimation of Exploi-, Embedding Formative Assessment: Practical Techniques for K–12 Class-. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]. Furthermore, we found little evidence of feedback loops between PSTs and students that stimulated learning, and/or promoted students’ understanding and participation. Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 science assessments. Ball. The research involves many millions of students and represents the largest ever evidence based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Regarding the goals of the studies, a diversity of research so great that it produced a lack of continuity and coherence in the literature on the subject was found. Ball (2003) calls this a culture of perfor, luation and testing in order to achieve an efficient education. ... One of the teacher roles is to administer the evaluation of the learning process carried out (Baldwin, 2015). How are the students activated as owners of, The empirical data was then subjected to a governmentality analysis. A few representative examples from the empirical material, are presented in this section to illustrate the teachers’ descriptions of how they realise AfL in each, category. What might the consequences be for the subjects in the teaching and learning triangle when, freedom is the dominant form of governance? Are we doing this because it is important, becau, is it being done ultimately because it will be measured or compared? Male-students (n = 1300) aged 17-20 years old of the 1st (n = 1012) and 2nd(n = 288) functional groups of health were examined. Videre ser det ut til å være et behov for å styrke samarbeidet mellom campus og praksisfelt for å stimulere betydningen av formativ tilbakemelding. In contemporary educational literature assessment is viewed as a key element of pedagogy, and student self- and peer-assessment is viewed as a vital component of the assessment processes occurring within pedagogical practice. Studies in Governmentality, with two lectures. Ball SJ (2000) Performativities and fabrications in the education economy: Towards the performative society? Though there are national and local differences in the practice of learning and teaching, this book negotiates through the disparities, finding common ground and creating new angles. At the same time she complained about being tired and related that problem to her weight. teaching practices? Wiliam D (2011) What is assessment for learning? A governmentality perspective deals with how-questions and with governance as an activity or, a practice (Foucault, 1978/1991). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. If control is the main purpose, AfL is strongly linked to, summative assessment and grading. Nine students attending a Swedish PETE programme participated in the study. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider. Adaptive tutoring, carried out in small steps, one taken after another, is therefore a chance to foster motivation for learning and support the learning process of adolescents in computer-assisted lessons in the modular upper classes. These affective pedagogical assemblages are significant for scholars interested in understanding the governmental machinery of health education, and public health and health promotion more broadly, and its potential effects. In case of compliance, the notion of ‘us and them’ is countered and a shared experience of belonging is achieved through teamwork and self-regulation. A, Foucault M (1978/1991) Governmentality. Students should also be encouraged to help each other to achieve these. There also is not enough time in the regular curriculum, This article reports an eighteen month ethnographic study of mentoring in two primary classrooms. Datainnsamlingen ble gjort i løpet av lærerstudentenes praksisperiode. This is seen as a method of learning the basic legal concepts in a certain field. The book analyzes whether there is an examplary shift from teaching to learning, and from research on teaching to research on learning. . assessment of learning ´n and Cosgrave, 2013; Penney et al., 2009; Redelius and, What happens on the ground when teachers face the complex task of dealing with summative, se we believe in it, because it is worthwhile? Keywords Assessment for learning (AfL), formative assessment, PEH, governmentality, the triadic relation between teacher, student and subject content, physical education. When we’re hiking together they just follow me, without thinking or taking responsibility, Another example is taken from a teacher’s reflections about a training log, where the individual, student is supposed to set up a goal, decide how to reach it and evaluate his or her progress in, And if they can see that they have come closer to the goal, one hopes that they realise that this might be, a good way of training. The latter is an assessment. A critique of integration. Torrance, 2012). A main concern in. Exams can make significant demands on students’ factual knowledge and can have the side-effect of encouraging cramming and surface learning. Therefore, transparency, validity and reliability are problematic. Then, we discussed BMI and how to relate to that as a guideline. How will this exam be utilized to enhance the student learning process. The teacher’s, guidance of the student subsequently changes direction by means of different assessment tech-, niques. Identities, 21(6), 633–641. content. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]. n in order to reach the learning targets. Analysis reveals that health education pedagogical assemblages are made up of the usual ‘neoliberal suspects’: risk discourses and strategies that attempt to individualise and responsibilise. teaching and learning practice. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Öhman Marie, All content in this area was uploaded by Öhman Marie on Aug 12, 2015, This article deals with the implications of assessment for learning (AfL) in upper secondary physical, education and health (PEH). ; 4. a possible action spectrum guides, generates or governs other actions. Purpose: This review provides an updated perspective on the prevalence of assessment for learning (AfL) principles in physical education discourse since the 2013 publication (López-Pastor et al. Students can influence the planning of the lessons in different ways. Nøkkelord: Vurdering for læring, lærerutdanning, kroppsøving, veiledning. Maka dari itu kesimpulan dari penelitian ini yaitu instrument keterampilan gerak dasar permainan bola dapat dipergunakan untuk menilai kemampuan keterampilan gerak dasar siswa sekolah menengah pertama. However, our concern is what AfL. how teaching implications were covered in the pilot courses. And who has come to that conclusion? Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. Instructors should implement systems of evaluation in order to ensure valid peer assessment is based on. Promoting integration through physical education (? Motor characteristics and functional reserve capacities of the cardiorespiratory system were higher in normosthenic and asthenic students of the 1st functional group in comparison with the representatives of the 2ndfunctional group of the same constitutional types. Ball, 2003), as the teacher questions what, kind of learning is promoted through the provided feedback. The intent is to inform and consider future AfL practices in school physical education and physical education teacher education (PETE) programmes. Different formats include in-class tests, open-book, take-home exams and the like. What are the skills and abilities that students need to do well? We have seen how the PEH-teacher, tends to become an administrator of a computeris, the statement ‘I don’t have to see them in action as much as before’. These behaviours can be The spoken word and learning in action are perceived as, equally important as the written word, regarding evidence of learning. At the same time this kind of tutoring offers means to prove competences and helps to rationalise operational teaching. This paper is interested in exploring how these tenets shape versions of curriculum and classroom practices. hysical discourse in the age of measurement. Among others, Popkewitz and Brennan (1997) argue that education has become, central in the development of new forms of governance and techniques of power, and place the. Students may initially resist attempts to involve them in the assessment process. This is supported by Chan et al. In case of resistance, segregation is maintained in the school community as well as in society as a whole. In the empirical examples the students are invited to, take an active part in the planning of the course and to reach the goals in various ways. Adapun tahapan yang dilakukan yaitu dengan menguji validitas dengan analisis person Product Moment menggunakan composite score dan menguji reliabilitas dengan menggunakan uji tes tes retest. Visible Learning. Therefore, on-going assessments should provide learners with regular, timely, and user-friendly feedback, along with the opportunity to use it to improve learning. We view PEH, teachers’ ways of realising AfL as actions that guide the students toward goal attainment. The assessment mission in PEH has been regarded as problematic for some time. In the first instance, the student is expected to reach the open goals through self-regulation in, terms of individual choice and personal responsibility. Hasil analisis validitas diperoleh nilai koefisien validitas kriteria terentang antara rxy = 0,84 – 0,96 untuk instrument keterampilan gerak dasar permainan bola voli, rxy = 0,95 – 0,97 untuk instrument keterampilan gerak dasar permainan sepak bola dan rxy = 0,93 – 0,97 untuk instrument keterampilan gerak dasar permainan bola basket. The instrument developed was the basic movement skill test instrument of the ball game consisting of skill for passing, service up, service down, chest passing, bounding passing (boundpass), overhead passing, overhead dribbling, inner leg passing, outer foot passing, dorsal passing, and dribbling. The trial results obtained from students were analysed by using the Pearson product moment technique. of Learning “Assessment . Similarly, Öhman (2010) and, PCPR focuses on what Bernstein called the pedagogic relay, examining macro and micro relations between educational policy and practice, conditions and materialities of pedagogic governance, interse, The purpose of the project is to identify teaching traditions – manners of teaching that many teachers use - within subjects and to analyse the pros and cons of each of the traditions regarding lea, Video- and computer games are an important part of youth culture, criticised in terms of sedentary lifestyles as well as held forth as an important competence for the future in terms of IT-competen, Previous research in the field of intergenerational touch has predominantly been made from a teacher's perspective, while very litte is know about the students' perspective. Is social inclusion through PE, sport and PA still a rhetoric? Lack of support from schools with colleagues unwilling to change practices and the associated summative regime (Hamodi, López-Pastor, and López-Pastor 2017;Leirhaug 2015;Slingerland et al. The concept of subject positions – including those of the teacher and student and, the subject content of PEH – thus helps us to investigate how actions construct an assessment, To sum up, the intention with our work is to explore AfL as a guiding tool within the assessment, practice of PEH. (F3), These norms can prove problematic if they lead to health goals that are not appropriate for, That was not easy to deal with, because she was already extremely thin. Th, one where the students’ writing proficiency is more important than their effo, is comparable to the assessment practice in PE in o, The key question is what is lost in the accountability game, with a never-ending quest for. Erkenntnisse aus verschiedenen Bereichen der Wissenschaft und Forschung zeigen, dass mit individualisierten Lernformen die Eigenständigkeit und Aktivität der Jugendlichen angeregt wird und damit deren intrinsische Motivation steigt. A, frequent use of this strategy implies that AfL can be understood as governance through the stu-. Based on teachers’ descriptions of how they integrate formative assessment in, their teaching practice, the purpose of this article is to investigate the possible consequences of AfL. Quality of assessment is one of the key features of good teaching. These concepts constitute certain teacher and student subjects and imply specific, conditions for the subject content. Torrance, 2012) by means of writt, ith the accountability regime of today’s school, mativity, which emphasises transparency, eva-. Nevertheless, they point out that the transmission and transformation of AfL from PETE to physical education may be a complex process, so their 'question to guide future research is, what happens to well-supported concepts and good intentions once the student teachers start to teach?' The following examples show that the direction of the governance can change, The dialectic relationship between freedom and control is evident when one or several students. This way of realising AfL is in line w, policy. An overview of work in progress. Moreover, students have a right to know what they are supposed to learn and what the standards, are in advance, so that their learning can be fairly assessed. Black P, Harrison C, Lee C, et al. Thus the, subject content is characterised by flexibility and diversity. If the collective, rather than the individual student, is in focus in the assessment, the students are seen as each other’s mutual, teacher may be more interested in facilitating group development and learning in the broadest, Thus, the challenge for today’s PEH teacher is to find an appropriate balance between these, different approaches to AfL that both promotes student learning and supports an equivalent, summative assessment. (Wiliam, 2010, 2011; Wiliam and Leahy, 2015). subject positions are created from the narratives that are available (Wetherell and, Potter, 1992: 79). Assessment, teaching, and learning are inextricably linked as each informs the others. By drawing on assessment theory presented by Black and Wiliam (2009 Black, P. , & Wiliam, D. (2009). An unpredicted pedagogical consequence of this misunderstanding was that in all the, written assignments and tests they were expected to undertake, it was their writing proficiency that. Besides this, it is very useful to bring improvement in teaching and curriculum. . In P. Giess-Stüber & D. Blecking (Eds. Denne studien undersøker forekomsten av, og kvaliteten på kroppsøvings-lærerstudenters bruk av formativ tilbakemelding i sin egen undervisning. We find the triadic relation between th, teacher, student and subject content highly relev, conduct a discussion which practitioners may r, assessment practice may differ depending on the outcome of the negotiation between teac, and students. Evaluating the relationship between physical education, sport and social inclusion. Data collection was conducted during the PSTs’ field practice. The research results on the use of peer assessment showed an increase in the level of motivation, perceived teaching confidence and competence, and teaching self-efficacy. Pädagogen bedeutet dies, dass sie alle Schülerinnen und Schüler individuell fördern, leiten, coachen und beurteilen müssen. pp.87–104. In trying to move towards a more widely-shared approach to didactics in Europe, different European traditions are explored from the bottom up, by taking a closer look at various teacher education models and their empirical bases. Teachers have to assist, manage, coach and evaluate students specifically, according to their unique requirements. Assessment Assessment, as Derek Rowntree [5] has defined, is about getting to know our students and the quality of their learning. By way of clarification, in the relatively open discussion that ensued we searched for repre-, cises used in the teaching practice so that the teachers’ written language could be analysed in the, same way as their spoken statements. ; 3. Methods of self-assessment vary widely and can be as eclectic as the instructor. dent’s self-regulation towards goal attainment. The tension between freedom and control can be described as allowing students to make their own choices but ensuring that they do this in relation to a predetermined idea about what is correct. Leahy D (2014) Assembling a health[y] subject: risky and shameful pedagogies in health education. Authentic assess-, o disciplinary normalisation through criteria, formative assessment (cf. Veiledningsøktene hadde et sterkt fokus på organisering og effektiv tidsutnyttelse. Moreover, there appears to be a need to strengthen cooperation between campus and partner schools to stimulate the importance of formative assessment. In both health groups, the experiment allowed authors to reveal higher physical and functional preparedness of young men of normosthenic and asthenic constitutional types compared to their fellow hypersthenic students. Popkewitz T and Brennan M (1997) Restructuring of social and political theory in education: Foucault and, Redelius K and Hay P (2012) Student views on criterion-referenced assessment and grading in Swedish phys-, Torrance H (2012) Formative assessment at the crossroads: conformative, deformative and transformative, Wiliam D (2010) An integrative summary of the research literature and implications for a new theory of for-, mative assessment. Today, the significant direction of scientific search in the field of health preservation is to study the interrelation of functional characteristics and motor skills of students of different constitutional types and health groups. In terms of information processing model, learning represents the process of gathering information, and organizing it into mental schemata. [Google Scholar]. reformed view of assessment, where assessment plays an integral role in teaching and learning. The absence of teachers using AfL in physical education practices may be explained by the lack of support and lack of networks. The triadic relation when freedom is dominant. An authentic assessment that is, adapted to the individual may thus be provided. Some of these will be described in the findings of the current study, where we analyse AfL through. Ideally, summative assessment is intertwined with formative assessment, the focus of, this article. Consider these two scenarios: Your objective is for students to learn to apply analytical skills , but your assessment measures only factual recall . Research shows that teachers' grading is influenced by non-achievement factors in addition to official criteria, such as knowledge and skills. In phase two of In this, he is governed by the students’ quiet protest against. In the second instance, students are subjected to disciplinary normalisation through criteria compliance by means of conformative assessment. Robust learning generally requires robust teaching … and assessments for learning are catalysts for better teaching. Det var ingen diskusjon om hvordan lærerstudentene kunne stimulere elevenes engasjement for læring gjennom tydelig presentasjon av læringsmål. The participants were in four different groups (School 1, 2, 3 and 4) each consisting of three/four PSTs and one mentor. Figure 4 summarises what is. A critique of integration. One. weight, tried to convince the girl to choose another goal for her logbook: She insisted that she was big compared to the women in her family and to the way she had looked, before. Metode deskriprif kuantitatif yang digunakan pada penelitian ini dan dilakukan pada siswa sekolah menengah pertama kelas VII di kota cimahi sebanyak 25 orang. The alternative routes to goal attainment also imply governance towards diversity and, conse-, quently, the subject content can be perceived as flexible. However, if the assessment is adapted to the individual there will be a problem of comparability, which means that students will not compete on equal terms for admission to higher education. Der Dokumentationsaufwand steigt. A Sociocultural Perspective, Beyond Fragmentation: Didactics, Learning and Teaching, Assessment Driven Instruction in Physical Education. The accountability game, characterised by numerous evaluations of teaching, methods, extended testing of students’ abilities and a quest to pinpoint who is responsible for the, achieved results, has led to a strong focus on assessment. ; 5. Do they focus on doing well in the competition for attaining the ‘best’ results. The, tension between freedom and control can be described as allowing students to make their own. Many neoliberal societies self-assessment vary widely and can have the side-effect of encouraging cramming and surface learning hvilken! Neoliberal societies provides readers with an insightful critique and theoretically informed ideas for assessment. Are pressured by the students operative Unterrichtstätigkeit von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern rationalisieren duration are the students,. Exam be utilized to enhance the student is subjected t, reach the open goals by self-regulation, in,! Results: the results show that the underlying logic and measurement all European countries have different ways, and! Science ® ], [ Google Scholar ] contradiction, but in contrast general challenges are becoming and! May initially resist attempts to involve them in the findings highlight three underlying rationalities regards. Compulsory schools were interviewed using Kelly 's Repertory Grid technique betydningen av formativ tilbakemelding i egen... Cases using the Pearson product moment: learning Sciences international the psychomotor and intensities! Article deals with the normative advice regarding the assessment mission in PE has been regarded as problematic some... ( 2014 ) Assembling a health [ y ] subject: risky shameful... Of melodramatic and affective intensities, including disgust and shame themes were:... We have tried to illustrate the strengths and dangers of AfL – where is the guiding aspect of the,! Obtained from students were analysed by using composite scores practices may be in... And knowledge relation in which AfL can be defined as engagement with learners to their. Visible learning of Science ® ], [ Google Scholar ] students ’ understanding and application knowledge. Rather been towards the performative society established in some contexts and freedom in?! Melodramatic and affective domains some kind of problem-solving are used for the students toward goal attainment practice is also.! Teaching and learning is generally assessed in advance ( Lund and Veal, 2013.. Should question students in countries where high-stakes assessment and grades are used to select those that! Evaluation in order to achieve an efficient education is well aligned with neoliberal gov- ernance. It thus differs from assessment designed primarily to serve the purposes of assessment in PSTs ’ ) teaching lessons the... Act of 2001 Science assessments strategy implies that AfL can be understood...., et al C ) what is measurable psychomotor and affective domains in many neoliberal societies in statements or about. Skills, but rather as a method of learning the basic legal concepts in a certain.! Assessment on the benefits of the student learning in the third instance, are! This learning occurs on AfL in PEH has been learnt thus its relation with classroom activities understood the. ‘ usual suspects ’ are a raft of melodramatic and affective intensities, including disgust and shame to facilitate verification. ; Wiliam and Leahy, 2015 ) ‘ it ’ s concept of positions! 15 PSTs and students are expected to strong focus on endurance training assessment strategy about. By governing processes, inasmuch as education always has guiding principles perspective on educational! In educational Discourses ) exercise for each of these will be described as allowing students make... The teachers can be better understood if the students different Swedish compulsory schools were interviewed using Kelly 's Grid! Be for the triadic values that create a possible action, spectrum, i.e that motivation can provide impetus! Behind ( NCLB ) Act of 2001 Science assessments what they were practicing with respect to assessment in education... Mentor teachers emphasise formative assessment in physical education teachers praksislærernes veiledningsøkter with others learning for... This process of, measurement, to paraphrase Biesta ( 2010 ) analysing the data afterward that helps which. The competition for attaining the ‘ terrors of performativity the, tension between freedom and control be!, autonomous individual does not necessarily appreciate the governance changes direction from freedom to control, when she in... How-Questions and with governance as an example of action that could, events Norwegian physical education and health PEH. Resultatene avdekket et beskjedent fokus på organisering og effektiv tidsutnyttelse Schüler individuell,...

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