Obesity is the excessive accumulation of adipose tissue—for dogs and cats, >20% above ideal body weight. The ever-evolving role of animals, and their caregivers, in modern society is creating job opportunities and career paths unheard of just a few years ago. Pain assessment 5. Any therapeutic renal diet should be phosphorus restricted, supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids (EPA/DHA) that come from fish oil, alkalinizing, supplemented with B vitamins, and in cats supplemented with potassium. When oral feeding can be resumed, a commercially prepared, easily digestible diet that has moderate fiber (10%–15% dry-matter basis) and is low in fat (5%–10%) can be fed in small, frequent meals (3–6 times/day). Obesity is the most common nutritional health problem in dogs and cats, and obesity-associated health risks continue to increase. Antibiotic, fluid, and electrolyte therapy during NPO treatment is essential, and IV nutritional support (total parenteral nutrition) should be instituted if NPO therapy continues for ≥3 days. The protein in hydrolyzed diets is broken down into smaller peptide fragments that are too short to bridge two IgE molecules. Monitoring animal health and preventing animal disease outbreaks is vital to the economy and safety of the country’s food supply. A newer alternative diet commercially available for use in dogs and cats with suspected adverse reactions to food is a hydrolyzed protein diet. Underlying urinary tract infection can also result in poor regulation and insulin resistance until the infection is cured. This occurs most commonly when animals are started on a therapeutic diet while they are ill, eg, offering a therapeutic diet to manage renal failure while the animal is still in a uremic crisis. Maintenance diets are generally not recommended for weight loss programs, because they are formulated to meet the nutritional needs of moderately active adults. The objective of dietary management is to provide a balanced diet with increased amounts of insoluble fiber (10%–25% dry-matter basis to effect) or moderately fermentable fiber in dogs or a highly digestible balanced diet containing prebiotics in cats. Nutritional management is also important as an integral part of both preventive health care and treatment protocols for medical and surgical patients, and ignoring nutritional needs can often be more detrimental to a dog or cat than the illness or injury for which it is being treated. Probiotics are an additional tool available for management of small- or large-bowel diarrhea. The deterioration of the animal’s condition clearly indicates that nutritional requirements are not being met, and the dietary goal is to increase the caloric density and palatability of the food while meeting the animal’s requirements for protein and other nutrients. An adverse reaction to a food is a clinically abnormal response to any type of food ingested. The Nutrition Service at the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center offers either face to-face or telephone appointments to pet owners and case consultations to veterinarians practicing in Minnesota and throughout the country. Simplified homemade diets are also possible using the same protein sources suggested above (or other ingredient sources the owner wants to test). The two most common uroliths in the lower urinary tract of cats are magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) and calcium oxalate, although other mineral types are possible. The most likely reason for this is that untreated diabetic cats may develop glucose toxicity, and hyperglycemia decreases pancreatic β-cell function. Any weight loss is good weight loss, and celebrating successes with the owner helps maintain motivation. Burns and other causes of significant areas of skin loss increase heat and water loss to the environment, thereby increasing energy needs. Large animal neonates are born immunocompetent but lack antibodies. The most common risk factors for DM in cats are obesity and increasing age. Cystine urolithiasis is due to a renal tubular defect. These include impaired clearance of nitrogenous products of protein metabolism; impaired regulation of sodium, potassium, and phosphorus; acidosis; impaired vitamin D metabolism; and often anorexia. Nutritional Management of Hospitalized Small Animals offers veterinarians, veterinary students and technicians a comprehensive reference to the latest information relating to the principles and practice of nutritional support in small animals that require hospitalization. Take a quick interactive quiz on the concepts in How Nutrition Affects Farm Animal Health or print the worksheet to practice offline. Protein intake must also be matched with the energy intake to avoid net protein and muscle catabolism. , BS, DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVN, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia. Therefore, commercially prepared low-sodium diets or recipes that use low-sodium foods must be substituted. If a particular diet is refused, an alternative(s) should be tried until one that the animal will eat is identified. Clinical signs associated with diarrhea are different in small-bowel versus large-bowel diarrhea (see Table: Characteristics of Small-bowel and Large-bowel Diarrhea). Starvation is never a safe or humane way to cause weight loss. If the animal is losing weight at a slower rate than that chosen but is doing well otherwise and the owner is satisfied, then it may be best to allow weight loss to continue at the slower rate. In view of these values, commercial dog and cat diets cannot even be classified as mild sodium restriction. When using a home-prepared diet, all processed meats, cheeses, bread, heart, kidney, liver, salted fats, whole eggs, and snack foods should be avoided. Most DM in dogs is type I (insulin dependent) due to immune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet cells (see Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs and Cats). Protein is the most common nutrient associated with adverse reactions to food, because it is needed to bridge two IgE molecules together to cause the release of histamine. Despite dietary management, the recurrence rate is high (33% in the first year and 50% by the third year). Treatment for obesity should include both short- and longterm goals. Dr. Anorectic dogs and cats can sometimes be persuaded to eat by adding highly flavored substances to the diet (eg, animal fat, meat drippings, fish [fish juices or oils for cats]) or by hand-feeding. Probiotics are defined as nutritional supplements containing live, viable, beneficial bacteria in sufficient numbers to provide a health benefit. Applied Veterinary Clinical Nutrition provides current, clinically relevant nutritional advice intended for use in daily canine and feline practice. In poor regulation and insulin resistance of minerals and crystals that form uroliths tolerate without needing urinate! 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